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                                                                                                                                                                機械設備狀態監測與故障診斷
                                                                                                                                                                發布時間:2016-2-25

                                                                                                                                                                    機械設備狀態監測與故障診斷是同一學科的兩個不同層次, 它們既有聯系又 有區別,為了方便起見統稱為機械設備故障診斷。

                                                                                                                                                                  機械設備故障診斷是識別機械設備(機器或機組)運行狀態的一門綜合應用科學和技術,它主要研究機械設備 運行狀態的變化在診斷信息中的反映。具體來說,就是通過測取設備運行的狀態 信號,并結合其歷史狀況對所測取的信號進行處理、分析、提取特征,從而定量診斷(識別)機械設備及其零部件的運行狀態(正常、異常、故障) ,再進一步 預測設備未來的運行狀態, 最終確定需要采取何種必要的措施來保證機械設備取 得最優的運行效果。

                                                                                                                                                                  主要內容包括對機械設備運行狀態的監測、診斷(識別)和預測三個方面。 其中,狀態監測也被稱為簡易診斷,一般是通過測定設備的某些較為單一的特征 參數(如:振動、溫度、壓力等)來檢查設備運行狀態,再根據特征參數值與門 限值之間的關系來確定設備當前是處于正常、異常還是故障狀態。如果對設備進行定期或連續的狀態監測,就可以獲得設備運行狀態變化的趨勢和規律,據此就 可以預報設備的未來運行發展趨勢,也就是人們常說的趨勢分析。診斷(識別)則不僅要掌握設備的運行狀態和發展趨勢,更重要的是查找產 生故障的原因,識別、判斷故障的嚴重程度,為科學檢修指明方向。

                                                                                                                                                                  這就是人們常說的精密診斷,設備狀態監測與設備故障診斷可以從以下兩個方面來理解。

                                                                                                                                                                  一、設備狀態監測與故障診斷的基本環節

                                                                                                                                                                  基本環節可分為狀態監測、分析診斷和治理預防。

                                                                                                                                                                  轉軸、軸承、齒輪是組成設備傳動鏈的三大組件,用振動法進行狀態監測和故障診斷時,可用電渦流位移傳感器在盡量靠近軸承的平面內相互垂直的兩個方向上,測量轉軸的徑向振動,在靠近轉軸端面處測量其軸向位移;也可用加速度傳感器或速度傳感器在軸承座底部或側面測量機殼(軸承座)的水平、垂直和軸向振動。通過對特征信號的監測、采集、記錄、分析處理及數據或圖譜顯示,對照判斷標準和參考圖譜,對機械設備進行狀態識別,并作出診斷結論。根據該結論選擇巡回檢測、監護運行或停機檢修,對已確診原因、部位和危險程度的設備故障,可采取調整、檢修、更換等措施,防止類似故障再發生。

                                                                                                                                                                  二、監測與診斷的方法技巧

                                                                                                                                                                  1.概念清晰

                                                                                                                                                                  異常振動往往標志著故障,欲根據提取的振動信號特征識別故障,就必須緊緊圍繞時間、頻率(轉速)、周期、相位、振幅(能量)等參量進行分析。

                                                                                                                                                                  工程上遇到的多為動態信號,其幅值隨時間變化。動態信號又可分為確定性的周期信號(簡諧信號、復雜周期信號)和非周期信號(準周期信號、瞬變信號)、非確定性的平穩隨機信號(各態歷經信號、非各態歷經信號)和非平穩隨機信號,這些信號與振動一一對應,并與故障關系密切。

                                                                                                                                                                  振動有四種分類方法。一是按振動實質的動力學分類法,可分為強迫振動、瞬態振動、自激振動、參變振動;二是粗略估計故障部位的按振動頻率高低分類法;三是根據信號特點區分出各種振動特征,并能對譜圖特點作出理論說明的分類法;四是振動系統的特征(線性振動、非線性振動)分類法。

                                                                                                                                                                  例如,轉子不平衡和不對中故障產生簡諧振動,這種在離心力作用下的振動屬于強迫振動;當齒輪箱或機組同時存在幾個轉子不平衡或不對中故障時,產生復雜周期振動;滾動軸承元件損傷故障被激發導致的衰減振動,屬于準周期振動;齒輪斷齒、轉子摩擦等故障則產生撞擊的瞬態振動。

                                                                                                                                                                  2.思路明確

                                                                                                                                                                  (1)了解測試對象的原理,結構及運行狀況。監測診斷前,應確認被測對象是旋轉機械還是往復機械,是滑動軸承還是滾動軸承,機組傳動鏈構成,以及是否存在外來激勵;了解被測對象的運行狀況及其故障歷史,估計可能出現的故障及其部位,哪些參數變化最為敏感。

                                                                                                                                                                  (2)估計被測對象的振動類型、振級和可能產生的最低、最高頻率,計算故障頻率,確定分析頻帶;根據機組結構和環境條件,選定傳感器及儀器或監測診斷系統。例如滑動軸承可采用非接觸式電渦流位移傳感器,滾動軸承則采用速度或加速度傳感器。

                                                                                                                                                                  (3)選用適宜的監測診斷參數。位移d對低頻信號(100Hz以下)非常敏感,反映了質點工作位置的變化程度,可監測位能對設備的破壞;速度V對中頻信號(1kHz以下)非常敏感,反映了質點運動的快慢,可監測動能對設備的破壞;加速度a對高頻信號(I kHz以上)非常敏感,反映了質點受力變化,可監測沖擊力對設備的影響。雖然數學上三個量可以相互轉換,實際測試中則應依據各自適宜的頻率合理選用。

                                                                                                                                                                  (4)繪制機組測點示意圖、測試報告表。

                                                                                                                                                                  (5)檢查測試系統,確定傳感器安裝位置。

                                                                                                                                                                  (6)對實測的振動特征數據和圖譜,用判斷標準或參考圖譜反復對比、分析,從振動機理上逐項排除與故障無關的因素后,結合現場感官診斷經驗作出診斷結論。

                                                                                                                                                                  (7)采用對應的治理預防措施,以消除隱患或故障。

                                                                                                                                                                  3、方法得當

                                                                                                                                                                  如果有僅能顯示振動幅值(或能量)大小的簡易診斷儀器,應根據傳感器的頻響范圍選擇最優的安裝方式,選好測點并做標記。要辨知儀器上顯示振動幅值大小是哪種參數(加速度、速度、位移),有無分檔量程(低通、高通、帶通)及其用途,能否顯示有量綱(或無量綱)的診斷參數值或分貝值等。

                                                                                                                                                                  利用這類儀器,可選用振幅值(有效值Xrms峰值Xr、均值萬)、趨勢圖、波形因數(峰值Xp,均值X)、波峰因數(峰值Xp、有效值 )、無量綱參數、沖擊脈沖等診斷法,對機組作出定性的簡易診斷。

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